OJS Journal B http://ojsdemo.com/index.php/ojsb <p>Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit. In ultrices lorem et lacinia consequat. Donec tristique finibus iaculis. Nulla sit amet justo commodo, pellentesque elit eget, varius enim. Sed enim odio, venenatis a ultricies vel, ullamcorper quis justo. Quisque porttitor risus in vehicula vestibulum. In in eros tempor, blandit erat eu, suscipit mauris. Aliquam facilisis, eros eget fermentum efficitur, justo metus varius mi, nec aliquet augue leo at arcu. More information ...</p> en-US OJS Journal B <p>Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms</p> <ul> <li>that this article contains no violation of any existing copyright or other third party right or any material of a libelous, confidential, or otherwise unlawful nature, and that I will indemnify and keep indemnified the Editor and THE PUBLISHER against all claims and expenses (including legal costs and expenses) arising from any breach of this warranty and the other warranties on my behalf in this agreement;</li> <li>that I have obtained permission for and acknowledged the source of any illustrations, diagrams or other material included in the article of which I am not the copyright owner.</li> <li>on behalf of any co-authors, I agree to this work being published in the above named journal, Open Access, and licenced under a Creative Commons Licence, 4.0 <a href="https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/legalcode">https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/legalcode</a>. This licence allows for the fullest distribution and re-use of the work for the benefit of scholarly information.</li> </ul> <p>For authors that are not copyright owners in the work (for example government employees), please <a href="mailto:%20journals@vgtu.lt">contact VTGU </a>to make alternative agreements.</p> Pedestrian quality of service at unprotected mid-block crosswalk locations under mixed traffic conditions: towards quantitative approach http://ojsdemo.com/index.php/ojsb/article/view/161 <p>Safety, comfort, convenience and minimal delay are essential for pedestrians at mid-block crosswalk locations. Therefore, it is necessary to evaluate the quality of crosswalk with these qualitative parameters. In this study, qualitative parameters such as safety, crossing opportunities (available time gaps) and delay index values are considered as a single measure of effectiveness as a Pedestrian Crossing Index (PCI) for evaluation of Quality Of Service (QOS) at unprotected mid-block crosswalk locations under mixed traffic conditions. Further, the study is aimed at identifying the factors contributing to the pedestrian QOS. In order to achieve these objectives, field surveys were conducted at eight different unprotected mid-block crosswalk locations to collect pedestrian individual (age and gender), behavioural, traffic and roadway characteristics. An ordered probit model has been developed to find out the significant factors contributing to the pedestrian QOS by taking QOS as the dependent variable and other collected variables as independent variables. The model results show that several factors have significant effect on pedestrian QOS and out of these, factors such as rolling behaviour, speed change behaviour of pedestrian, vehicle speed, number of lanes and number of vehicle encountered were identified as the primary factors affecting pedestrian QOS at unprotected midblock crosswalk locations. The developed model may be useful for design and evaluation of the existing pedestrian QOS at unprotected mid-block crosswalk locations under mixed traffic conditions.</p> Bhadradri Raghuram Kadali Perumal Vedagiri Copyright (c) 2016 Vilnius Gediminas Technical University (VGTU) Press 2016-05-04 2016-05-04 33 2 302–314 302–314 10.3846/16484142.2016.1183227 Controlling the cost of risk management by utilising a phase portrait methodology http://ojsdemo.com/index.php/ojsb/article/view/173 <p>The methodology developed in this study presents an approach to the concurrent evaluation of Risk Management (RM) effectiveness during project execution. The method proposed is an adaptation of an approach developed and advocated by Khlebopros et al. (2007) for the mathematical modelling of complex systems, namely the analysis and effects of natural catastrophes. Hence, the method utilizes a phase portrait approach to identify the Prime Cost (PC) of RM of a project. Furthermore, the method provides an approach for comparing the individual identified risks with this PC, and subsequently highlighting a way of classifying and prioritising risks into a rank order for RM attention. The MERA (Multiple Estimating Risk Analysis) approach was utilized for the quantification of risk impact and ultimately the creation of the phase portrait. Besides being accurate and intuitively understandable, the methodology is relatively simple to implement and provides a rapid visualisation of the overall risk extent of a project.</p> David Eaton Seyyit Umit Dikmen Rıfat Akbiyikli Copyright (c) 2016 Vilnius Gediminas Technical University (VGTU) Press 2016-05-11 2016-05-11 33 2 315–321 315–321 10.3846/16484142.2016.1183228 Evaluation of the logistics center locations using a multi-criteria spatial approach http://ojsdemo.com/index.php/ojsb/article/view/178 <p>The private sector assumes that logistics centers create cost benefits for their operations. On the other hand, the public sector also assumes that logistics sectors maintain harmony with an aim to improve the logistics network structure and efficiency. In Turkey, nineteen logistics centers are on-going to develop a system approach and integrate different transportation modes to increase logistics performance. In this study, we focused on a multi-stage methodology that combines the fuzzy analytic hierarchy process, spatial statistics and analysis approaches to evaluate the suitability degrees of the logistics centers in the study area. To reach the suitability levels, seven decision criteria were considered alongside their priority levels. These criteria were proximities to highway, railway, airports, and seaports; volume of international trade; total population; and handling capabilities of the ports. The reached suitability degrees were tested using a sensitivity analysis. Different scenarios were discussed to understand how the decision environment might illustrate differences in spatial aspect.</p> İsmail Önden Avni Zafer Acar Fahrettin Eldemir Copyright (c) 2016 Vilnius Gediminas Technical University (VGTU) Press 2016-05-24 2016-05-24 33 2 322–334 322–334 10.3846/16484142.2016.1186113 Simulation method for determining traction power of ATN–PRT vehicle http://ojsdemo.com/index.php/ojsb/article/view/181 <p>The construction of Personal Rapid Transit (PRT) vehicle made within the framework of Eco-Mobility project has been described in the present paper. Key features of the vehicles were identified – e.g. drive with three-phase linear motor with winding on the vehicle and fixed rotor in the road surface, contactless dynamic vehicle powering. Attention was paid to the difference in dynamic properties compared to rail vehicles, related to the lack of the so-called ‘centering mechanism’. A development of a nominal model for the analysis of vehicle drive properties was presented. Results of simulation studies were presented for a vehicle with running-drive system construction, planned for implementation in the city of Rzeszów (Poland). While discussing the problems of building a PRT system, there was a focus on the issue of determining power and traction of the vehicle. A methodology for determining the power and traction energy consumption of the vehicle was presented for assumed conditions of travel on road segments. Input values for the calculation of power are variables describing the curvature (or bends radii) of paths of movement between stops and the course of the current speed. Output values are total traction power or traction energy (where ‘traction’ refers to the power or mechanical work of drive forces). Three basic elements of traction power were isolated: the power of kinetic energy (for acceleration/delay of vehicle movement) basic (to offset the aerodynamic force of motion resistance at constant speed) and additional losses (to offset additional motion resistance forces operating in turns at constant speed). Due to the lack of vehicle prototypes with assumed structure, it was proposed that these components are determined via simulation. The presented results relate to the calculation of demand for power and energy for the planned test section. The scope of further work was indicated: determining the required traction characteristics of electric drive, selecting the best values for supercapacitor’s capacity in the drive system, determining the technical parameters of substation.</p> Maciej Kozłowski Copyright (c) 2016 Vilnius Gediminas Technical University (VGTU) Press 2016-10-20 2016-10-20 33 2 335–343 335–343 10.3846/16484142.2016.1217429 High visibility reflective sign sheeting materials: field and computational evaluations of visual performance http://ojsdemo.com/index.php/ojsb/article/view/188 <p>Highway signs provide important information to drivers to assist in navigation, to identify potentially hazardous roadway locations, and to remind drivers of safe operating practices. Ensuring that signs have sufficient visibility to the driving public is a key undertaking by transportation agencies. In order to assist in evaluating and comparing different materials for photometric and visual performance, the present study was undertaken to assess the utility of specifying sign sheeting performance in terms of visual performance. As part of this effort, a practical methodology for conducting field measurements of sign luminance along roadways was developed. In addition to describing the methods for an approach to visual performance based specifications, a spreadsheet tool for calculating minimum sign luminance and visibility from different sign sheeting materials was also developed.</p> John D. Bullough Nicholas P. Skinner Copyright (c) 2016 Vilnius Gediminas Technical University (VGTU) Press 2016-10-20 2016-10-20 33 2 344–352 344–352 10.3846/16484142.2016.1230889 An RFID model for improving workers’ safety at the seaport in transitional environment http://ojsdemo.com/index.php/ojsb/article/view/190 <p>The paper proposes a Radio Frequency IDentification (RFID) model for enhancing port workers’ safety with reference to the Port of Bar (Montenegro) as a developing seaport operating in a transitional environment. The paper also highlights the lack of appropriate Information and Communication Technology (ICT) solutions in some developing seaports, including safety-related ones. It emphasizes the importance of safety measures through the prism of reducing the number of accidents, and gives a review of some RFID safety solutions in the harsh environments. The main part of the paper deals with the RFID worker’s safety model proposed according to the Port of Bar’s individual needs. The model has been presented at a logic level, while some of the physical and link layers performances between the set of an active and several passive RFID devices embedded to the port workers’ Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) and the Ultra High Frequency (UHF) RFID readers located at the port perimeter, are simulated in Matlab and OMNeT++. The obtained results followed by discussions can be used as landmarks to the ports’ management in adapting this or a similar model for enhancing safety measures in the port and its promoting as a safety one at the maritime market.</p> Sanja Bauk Anke Schmeink Joan Colomer Copyright (c) 2016 Vilnius Gediminas Technical University (VGTU) Press 2016-10-24 2016-10-24 33 2 353–363 353–363 10.3846/16484142.2016.1233512 Harmonization and synchronization model of interrupted traffic flows on motorways http://ojsdemo.com/index.php/ojsb/article/view/194 <p>The research in this paper focuses on harmonization and synchronization of traffic flows in the period of application of zonal temporary traffic regulation. The specific case scenario addressed in this research implicates that on both carriageways no vehicles were allowed to reside in the work zones for a significant time interval in the same time periods on both sections. In order to solve this problem, the model for harmonization of the traffic flows on dual carriageway motorways with synchronization of opposing traffic flows on both carriageways in special traffic conditions is presented. Actual traffic situation that occurred is presented in order to demonstrate the model, where intensive traffic flows were interrupted on both carriageways during extensive road works on two nearby sections. The model described in this paper has several stages. The first stage implies detailed analysis of traffic flows with computation of expected number of vehicles in the queue. The next stage in the modelling process is to calculate the queue discharge time for both directions and propose measures to optimise operating speed in order to maximize capacity. Then, a graphical method by means of two-way coordination diagram is used to synchronise stop signal timings on all closed sections. This paper shows results of a new model that was developed and implemented in real situations in most complex conditions that can occur on motorways. The research findings have shown the suitability of the proposed model.</p> Goran Kos Marko Ševrović Josip Jović Copyright (c) 2016 Vilnius Gediminas Technical University (VGTU) Press 2016-10-24 2016-10-24 33 2 364–369 364–369 10.3846/16484142.2016.1236352 Merging process of U-turns at uncontrolled median openings under mixed traffic conditions http://ojsdemo.com/index.php/ojsb/article/view/193 <p>At an uncontrolled median opening, the limited priority situation and the high degree of heterogeneity in traffic stream make the merging manoeuvre of U-turning vehicles very much complex. This study is an attempt to understand this merging manoeuvre. The different types of merging manoeuvres have been identified in the field and accordingly classified into different categories. Depending upon the number of vehicles that can merge all together into the opposing through traffic by accepting a single gap, the merging has been classified into two types: single entry merging and multiple entry merging. On the other hand, based on the situation of priority of movement, the merging process is divided into another two categories: ideal merging and forced merging. More explicitly, the ideal merging is split into free merging and Swift Merging (SM). In addition, the forced entry merging is categorized into Gradual Merging (GM) and Aggressive Merging (AM). Time distance diagrams for different types of merging are presented for their better understanding. Field data collected at seven median openings located on various 6-lane divided urban roads are used to analyse different types of merging in a mixed traffic situation. All vehicles plying on the road are divided into 5 categories such as car, motorized two-wheeler (2-W), motorized three-wheeler (3-W), Sports Utility Vehicle (SUV), and Light Commercial Vehicle (LCV) and the merging behaviour of these categories of vehicles have been studied. The effect of influencing parameters like opposing traffic volume and delay on merging are investigated. Mathematical relations are developed between Merging Time (MT) of a vehicle type and the opposing traffic volume. To address the effect of Service Delay (SD) on the MT of a vehicle, models are proposed between SD and MT for all the five categories of vehicles. The two types of merging; gradual and swift are prominently observed in field. The time required by different categories of vehicles for these two merging at various traffic volume levels are determined. Finally, two-tailed <em>t</em>-test is conducted to see if the MT for the two different types of merging is statistically different.</p> Gourab Sil Smruti Sourava Mohapatra Partha Pratim Dey Satish Chandra Copyright (c) 2016 Vilnius Gediminas Technical University (VGTU) Press 2016-10-26 2016-10-26 33 2 370–379 370–379 10.3846/16484142.2016.1247295 Investigating the driver’s response time at signalized intersections http://ojsdemo.com/index.php/ojsb/article/view/191 <p>It is generally accepted that, behavioural variables may show differences in different countries, and sometimes in different regions depending on cultural and other socio-economic factors. In literature, several researchers have emphasized that performance of signalized intersections is highly related with drivers’ behaviour. However, only a few parameters can be used to reflect drivers’ behaviour in performance analysis. Start response time is used as a key parameter in calibration of analytical and simulation models. In this study, a detailed analysis is conducted on the variability of start response time with respect to parameters like those that manoeuvre type, cycle time, gender of drivers’, etc. by using data obtained from signalized intersections in İzmir, Turkey. Analysis showed that left and right turning drivers have slightly shorter start response times than all through passing vehicles. In addition, the effect of start response time on base saturation flow is discussed.</p> Pelin Çalişkanelli Serhan Tanyel Copyright (c) 2016 Vilnius Gediminas Technical University (VGTU) Press 2018-01-25 2018-01-25 33 2 380–388 380–388 10.3846/10.3846/16484142.2016.1250106 Fly ash and slag utilization for the Serbian railway substructure http://ojsdemo.com/index.php/ojsb/article/view/200 <p>Approximately 7 million tons of fly ash and slag are produced in thermal power plants in Serbia every year, only 3% of which is used in the cement industry. About 300 million tons of the ash-slag mixture are disposed in landfills, occupying an area of approximately 1600 hectares and generating environmental issues. Fly ash from Serbian power plants has pozzolanic properties and due to low concentration of calcium compounds (less than 10% CaO), they do not have self-cementing properties. According to the ASTM C618-15, this ash is from class F. According to the European Standard EN 197-1:2011, this ash is siliceous (type V) ash. From April 2014 to May 2015, an investigation of engineering properties of fly ash and mixtures of fly ash and slag from landfill (without or with binders of cement/lime) was conducted at the Laboratory of Soil Mechanics at the Faculty of Civil Engineering of the University of Belgrade (Serbia) and at the Institute for Testing of Materials – IMS Institute in Belgrade. The laboratory test results were showed in the study ‘Utilization of fly ash and slag produced in the TPP JP EPS thermal power plants for construction of railways’. Four kinds of waste materials from Serbian power plants were laboratory tested: (a) an ash-slag mixture from landfills at the ‘Nikola Tesla A’ thermal power plant; (b) fly ash from silos in the ‘Nikola Tesla B’ thermal power plant; (c) an ash-slag mixture from landfills at the ‘Kostolac A’ and ‘Kostolac B’ thermal power plants and ‘Srednje kostolačko ostrvo’ landfill; (d) fly ash from the ‘Kostolac’ thermal power plant. The following physical and mechanical properties of ash and mixtures were investigated: grain size distribution, Atterberg limits, specific gravity, moisture-density relationship, shear strength parameters in terms of effective stresses, California Bearing Ratio (CBR), and deformation parameters. The paper presents the results of laboratory tests of the materials with and without binders, and based on the laboratory results and previous research, the paper presents possibilities of using fly ash and slag for the construction of railway substructure in the planned construction and reconstruction of railway network in Serbia. The obtained results indicate that tested fly ash and ash-slag mixture have met the technical requirements and that they have the potential to be used in railway substructure.</p> Mirjana Vukićević Zdenka Popović Jovan Despotović Luka Lazarević Copyright (c) 2016 Vilnius Gediminas Technical University (VGTU) Press 2016-12-11 2016-12-11 33 2 389–398 389–398 10.3846/16484142.2016.1252427 Prediction of traffic sign vandalism that obstructs critical messages to drivers http://ojsdemo.com/index.php/ojsb/article/view/186 <p>A critical deficiency in any one or a combination of three transportation system characteristics: the driver, roadway, or vehicle can contribute to an elevated crash risk for the motoring public. Traffic signs often convey critical information to drivers. However, traffic signs are only effective when clearly visible and legible. Traffic sign vandalism that is exclusively the results of humans causes both sign legibility and visibility to deteriorate. Transportation agencies spend a significant amount of money to repair or replace vandalized signs. This study was conducted to identify which traffic signs are more vulnerable to vandalism. To do this, a mobile-based vehicle collected data of over 97000 traffic signs managed by the Utah Department of Transportation (UDoT), US. The vandalized signs were identified by a trained operator through inspection of daytime digital images taken of each individual sign. Location data obtained from online sources combined with the traffic sign data were imported into ArcGIS to acquire localized conditions for each individual sign. According to the chi-square test results, the association between vandalism and traffic sign attributes and localized conditions, including background color, size, mount height, exposure, land cover, and road type was evident. After employing the random forests model, the most important factors in making signs vulnerable to vandalism were identified.</p> Majid Khalilikhah Kevin Heaslip Copyright (c) 2016 Vilnius Gediminas Technical University (VGTU) Press 2017-03-01 2017-03-01 33 2 399 407 10.3846/16484142.2016.1252946 Scheduling for yard cranes based on two-stage hybrid dynamic programming http://ojsdemo.com/index.php/ojsb/article/view/182 <p>Making operational plans for Yard Cranes (YCs) to enhance port efficiency has become vital issues for the container terminals. This paper discusses the load-scheduling problem of multiple YCs. The problem is to schedule two YCs at different container blocks, which serve the loading operations of one quay crane so as to minimize the total distance of visiting paths and the make-span at stack area. We consider the container handling time, the YC visiting time, and the waiting time of each YC when evaluating the make-span of the loading operation by YCs. Both the container bay visiting sequences and the number of containers picked up at each visit of the two YCs are determined simultaneously. A mathematical model, which considers interference between adjacent YCs, is provided by means of time-space network to formulate the problem and a two-stage hybrid algorithm composed of greedy algorithm and dynamic programming is developed to solve the proposed model. Numerical experiments were conducted to compare performances of the algorithm in this study with actual scheduling rules.</p> Zhan Bian Qi Xu Na Li Zhihong Jin Copyright (c) 2016 Vilnius Gediminas Technical University (VGTU) Press 2016-12-08 2016-12-08 33 2 408–417 408–417 10.3846/16484142.2016.1255993 Detection and analysis of hazardous locations on roads: a case study of the Croatian motorway A1 http://ojsdemo.com/index.php/ojsb/article/view/195 <p>The present paper describes research undertaken to identify causes underlying single-vehicle accidents (in terms of road design, driver behaviour and vehicle handling characteristics), which continuously happen in one specific section of Croatian motorway A1. The research resulted in a proposed procedure for a detection of hazardous locations on motorways and analysis of possible causes of single-vehicle accidents. The main part of the procedure involves test-rides with a vehicle equipped with devices (a ball bank indicator and a GPS data logger), which collect data on driver’s behaviour and vehicle handling characteristics (position, speed, longitudinal and lateral acceleration, heading, path radius, etc.). Despite the fact that the motorway was designed in accordance with the design guidelines, test rides performed by higher operating speeds identified two locations with a lateral acceleration change a few times higher than the design value. The collected data are then used for analysing hypotheses about the possible causes of accidents by using a vehicle dynamic model. The hypothesis that a sudden change in lateral acceleration could result in a driver’s inadequate manoeuvre like braking and cause a vehicle accident was analysed with a transient bicycle model. The results of test rides and the transient bicycle model indicate that speed, intensity of deceleration and underinflated tires significantly affect the probability of a single-vehicle accident.</p> Dražen Cvitanić Biljana Vukoje Copyright (c) 2016 Vilnius Gediminas Technical University (VGTU) Press 2017-01-16 2017-01-16 33 2 418 428 10.3846/16484142.2016.1259180 Competition or cooperation in a hub and spoke-shipping network: the case of the North Adriatic container terminals http://ojsdemo.com/index.php/ojsb/article/view/179 <p>This article examines the problem of the competition or cooperation of the container terminals in the North Adriatic hub and spoke system with respect to the leadership position of the ship owners, which defines the flow of containers. The problem is defined as a two-stage game where the shipping companies act as leaders and the container terminals are the followers. The stages of the game are defined as a multi-objective optimization problem on a graph. The proposed simulations and the results obtained could be a first step in defining a sustainable method of collabora-tion in the hub and spoke system between the ports and the ship owners. The purpose of the article is also to present a systematic examination of a hub and spoke port network based on a competition–cooperation model. The model could also be used by the shipping companies or container terminals to find an optimal strategy in the game and validate their business decisions.</p> Danijela Tuljak-Suban Copyright (c) 2016 Vilnius Gediminas Technical University (VGTU) Press 2017-01-16 2017-01-16 33 2 429 436 10.3846/16484142.2016.1261368 Use of high intensity reflective sheeting in lieu of external lighting of overhead roadway signs http://ojsdemo.com/index.php/ojsb/article/view/177 <p>Overhead guide sign lighting has been used by many agencies to improve visibility. However, the availability of newer and more efficient retroreflective materials has created a new challenge for state transportation agencies going through sign sheeting upgrade programs and considering the need for using sign lighting, as there is no existing answer regarding whether upgraded sign sheeting itself can meet drivers’ nighttime visibility demands without external sign lighting. The purpose of the paper is to investigate whether high intensity reflective sheeting can be used to replace overhead guide sign lighting. The conclusion of the study provided a guidance for agencies to adopt their current sign lighting policy. A luminance computation model is used in the paper to calculate overhead guide sign legend luminance under various situations, including different sign lighting technologies, different geometrics and overhead guide sign locations, and different amounts of sign dirt and sign aging. By comparing the calculated luminance of a specific overhead guide sign at a specific situation with the legibility luminance levels required by older drivers, sign lighting needs are assessed. In addition, a life-cycle cost spreadsheet is developed and used to calculate the cost of replacing the current sign sheeting with high reflective sheeting and the cost of installing/upgrading sign lighting. Eventually, the most cost effective approach to maintain overhead guide luminance is discussed.</p> Fan Ye Paul J. Carlson Mike N. Jackson Copyright (c) 2016 Vilnius Gediminas Technical University (VGTU) Press 2017-01-16 2017-01-16 33 2 437–445 437–445 10.3846/16484142.2016.1264469 Assessing effects of bus service quality on passengers’ taxi-hiring behavior http://ojsdemo.com/index.php/ojsb/article/view/180 <p>Due to low quality of bus service in a congested road network, some bus-waiting travelers would take taxis instead in order to save time or get to their destinations on time. However, the correlation between bus service quality and passengers’ taxi-hiring behavior is essentially unknown. This paper aims to assess the effects of bus service quality on taxi-hiring behavior based on historical data from the Global Position Systems (GPS) equipped buses and taxis in the city of Shenzhen, China. The taxi-hiring behavior is captured by analyzing the taxi-data, such as the origins of passenger pick-up, destinations of passengers drop-off, and taxi paths from the taxi movement data. The quality of bus service is assessed based on the bus location information. Parametric, semiparametric and nonparametric models are developed to explore the effects of bus service quality on taxi-hiring behavior. The results indicate that bus speed, headway and stoppage time are the core factors affecting passengers’ taxi-hiring behavior. Availability of metro, time of the day and bus route directions are the secondary important factors. This study shows that when buses run with relatively low and stable speed, taxi-hiring behavior is sensitive to the slight change of bus speed. More passengers would like to take taxis when bus speed starts to decline, or speed or stoppage time of buses tends to be irregular. However, the effects of bus headway on taxi-hiring behavior are more complicated. A specific turning point (coefficient of variability of mean headway ≈ 0.7) in the relationship between taxi-hiring behavior and bus headway is shown in this paper. Based on data mining and model development, this research presents details on attributes of bus service that drive passengers to switch to taxis and how changes in those attributes encourage modal shift from buses to taxis.</p> Hong-Wei Wang Zhong-Ren Peng Qing-Chang Lu Daniel (Jian) Sun Cong Bai Copyright (c) 2016 Vilnius Gediminas Technical University (VGTU) Press 2017-01-16 2017-01-16 33 2 446–460 446–460 10.3846/16484142.2016.1275786 Collision avoidance on winding roads using dedicated short-range communication http://ojsdemo.com/index.php/ojsb/article/view/176 <p>The emergence of wireless communication technologies such as Dedicated Short-Range Communication (DSRC) has promoted the evolution of collision warning from simple ranging-sensor-based systems to cooperative systems. In cooperative systems, path prediction is a promising method for reflecting a driver’s intention and estimating the future position of vehicles. In this study, a short-term trajectory-modelling method is proposed to predict vehicle motion behaviour in the cooperative vehicular environment. In addition, a collision detection algorithm for winding roads is presented based on a model for determining the minimum distance of vehicles’ future trajectories. The cooperative collision avoidance system’s performance is analysed through simulation, providing useful theoretical insights into the effects of DSRC technology on vehicle collision avoidance in a curved road environment.</p> Daxin Tian Yong Yuan Jian Wang Haiying Xia Jian Wang Copyright (c) 2016 Vilnius Gediminas Technical University (VGTU) Press 2017-01-16 2017-01-16 33 2 461 469 10.3846/16484142.2016.1278032 Identification of hotspots on roads using continual variance analysis http://ojsdemo.com/index.php/ojsb/article/view/170 <p>This paper presents a new statistical model for the identification of dangerous locations (subsections) on roads, also known as hotspots. The model is based on continual analysis of variance. The variance parameter has the potential for the synthesis of quantity and quality, especially regarding traffic accident frequencies and the consequences of traffic accidents within subsections and the significant comparison of the produced synthesis. The sensitivity of the suggested model can be adjusted with the level of disjunction and the length of subsections. A practical application of the new model is performed using a sample of 8442 traffic accidents, of which 6079 were Property Damage Only (PDO) accidents, 2041 resulted in injuries and 322 resulted in fatalities. The sample is for the period of 2001 to 2011 and is from an ‘I class’ two lane rural state road in the Serbia with total length of 284 kilometres. The results acquired using the continual analysis of variance were compared with previous results from four HotSpot Identification Methods (HSID) that are also based on the frequency of traffic accidents.</p> Dejan Anđelković Boris Antić Krsto Lipovac Ilija Tanackov Copyright (c) 2017 Vilnius Gediminas Technical University (VGTU) Press 2017-04-12 2017-04-12 33 2 478–488 478–488 10.3846/16484142.2017.1289479 Generalized velocity–density model based on microscopic traffic simulation http://ojsdemo.com/index.php/ojsb/article/view/169 <p>In case of the Intelligent Driver Model (IDM) the actual Velocity–Density law V(D) applied by this dynamic system is not defined, only the dynamic behaviour of the vehicles/drivers is determined. Therefore, the logical question is whether the related investigations enhance an existing and known law or reveal a new connection. Specifically, which function class/type is enhanced by the IDM? The publication presents a model analysis, the goal of which was the exploration of a feature of the IDM, which, as yet, ‘remained hidden’. The theoretical model results are useful, this analysis important in the practice in the field of hybrid control as well. The transfer of the IDM groups through large-scale networks has special practical significance. For example, in convoys, groups of special vehicle, safety measures with delegations. In this case, the large-scale network traffic characteristics and the IDM traffic characteristics should be taken into account simultaneously. Important characteristics are the speed–density laws. In case of effective modelling of large networks macroscopic models are used, however the IDMs are microscopic. With careful modelling, we cannot be in contradiction with the application of speed–density law, where there IDM convoy passes. Therefore, in terms of practical applications, it is important to recognize what kind of speed–density law is applied by the IDM convoys in traffic. Therefore, in our case the goal was not the validation of the model, but the exploration of a further feature of the validated model. The separate validation of the model was not necessary, since many validated applications for this model have been demonstrated in practice. In our calculations, also the applied model parameter values remained in the range of the model parameters used in the literature. This paper presents a new approach for Velocity–Density Model (VDM) synthesis. It consists in modelling separately each of the density and the velocity (macroscopic parameter). From this study, safety time headway (microscopic parameter) can be identified from macroscopic data by mean of interpolation method in the developed map of velocity–density. By combining the density and the velocity models, a generalized new VDM is developed. It is shown that from this one, some literature VDMs, as well as their properties, can be derived by fixing some of its parameters.</p> Oussama Derbel Tamás Péter Benjamin Mourllion Michel Basset Copyright (c) 2017 Vilnius Gediminas Technical University (VGTU) Press 2017-04-12 2017-04-12 33 2 489 501 10.3846/16484142.2017.1292950 Selection of coal transportation mode from the open pit mine to the thermic power plant using Fuzzy Analytic Hierarchy Process http://ojsdemo.com/index.php/ojsb/article/view/172 <p>Coal produced in open pit mines should be moved to thermic power plants for production of power. Thermic power plants require very large amounts of coal. In transportation process of this coal, both costs and technical parameters should be considered. Common alternative transportation modes in this process are belt conveyors, truck types, suspension rail conveying systems, pipelines and railways. Selection of one of these modes is influenced by transportation distance, inclination of the haulage road, amount of coal reserve, investment costs, production capacity and unit production cost of the open pit mine. In this study, advantages and disadvantages of alternative transportation modes are analysed using Fuzzy Analytic Hierarchy Process (F-AHP). The results revealed, belt conveyors and trucks transportation by are superior to others.</p> Pinar Mizrak Özfirat Muharrem Kemal Özfirat Tahir Malli Copyright (c) 2017 Vilnius Gediminas Technical University (VGTU) Press 2017-04-12 2017-04-12 33 2 502–509 502–509 10.3846/16484142.2017.1295278 Using accessibility measures in transit network design http://ojsdemo.com/index.php/ojsb/article/view/174 <p>Transit planning scenarios may lead to the different Objective Function (OF) values since each scenario has different transit travel times, frequencies and fleet sizes. Change on those variables leads to the different accessibility values for each route set. Therefore, the actual performance of a route set may be unforeseen since the accessibility values are out of evaluation criteria. This study tries to generate techniques, which handle the relation between accessibility and transportation in the scope of public transit. The accessibility measures, which have direct relation with land use and transportation, are utilized in transit route set decision. Accessibility measures have been utilized in the decision-making process of transit network design. Conventional OFs, which are used to determine the most effective route sets are combined with accessibility based OFs and the decision-making process of transit network design is strengthened. In this context, the effects of accessibility measures in decision-making process of transit network design have been represented on an 8-node example transit network. The results showed the accessibility measures could effectively improve the planners’ decision accuracy.</p> Gorkem Gulhan Huseyin Ceylan Halim Ceylan Copyright (c) 2017 Vilnius Gediminas Technical University (VGTU) Press 2017-04-12 2017-04-12 33 2 510–519 510–519 10.3846/16484142.2017.1295401 Optimizing signal phase plan, green splits and lane length for isolated signalized intersections http://ojsdemo.com/index.php/ojsb/article/view/175 <p>At an isolated signalized intersection, short left-turn lanes may be provided to enhance intersection capacity and level of service. The capacity of an entire intersection depends not only on the effective green time per phase and the length of each short left-turn lane but also on the selected signal phase plan. This paper enumerates 16 typical signal phase plans for a four-leg intersection with protected left-turn phases. Given the existence of short left-turn lanes and the freedom to select signal phase plans, two optimization models are formulated. Numerical examples are carried out to illustrate the application of these models and show the sensitivity of the outcomes to impact factors. The orthogonal experiments show that the primary factor is whether a short left-turn lane is added on an approach and the demand distribution is the secondary factor in determining an optimal allocation of the time-space resources of an intersection. To analyse traffic flow operations under different signal phase sequences, the simulation tests are fulfilled using VISSIM under the assumption that the components of a signal phase plan and green splits are all identical. The simulated results indicate that the signal phase sequence for a specified approach may greatly affect traffic movements at an approach, and the leading green phasing is better than the lagging one for a specified approach when the left-turn bay length is short at the approach. Finally, two variations of the developed models are recommended for use and the procedure for the model application is provided in practice.</p> Ronghan Yao Hongmei Zhou Ying-En Ge Copyright (c) 2017 Vilnius Gediminas Technical University (VGTU) Press 2017-04-27 2017-04-27 33 2 520–535 520–535 10.3846/16484142.2017.1297327 The influence of a quay crane sea transportation on its further exploitation http://ojsdemo.com/index.php/ojsb/article/view/164 <p>For the last decades, fully erected container cranes have been delivered to a customer site by ships. On one hand, using this method of transportation is very attractive due to its cost and time savings. However, on the other hand, being exposed to cycling loads from the ship motions during the sea voyage, the crane structure accumulates fatigue damage. Using the accumulated fatigue damage parameter, the crane transportation could be associated with the amount of the working cycles the crane could have worked out during its normal operating at the customer site. In the presenting paper the research for the real case of a new crane voyage from China to Ukraine has been done.</p> Maksym Starykov Frank Van Hoorn Copyright (c) 2017 Vilnius Gediminas Technical University (VGTU) Press 2017-04-12 2017-04-12 33 2 536–542 536–542 10.3846/16484142.2017.1297328 Bus arrival time prediction using mixed multi-route arrival time data at previous stop http://ojsdemo.com/index.php/ojsb/article/view/162 <p>The primary objective of this paper is to develop models to predict bus arrival time at a target stop using actual multi-route bus arrival time data from previous stop as inputs. In order to mix and fully utilize the multiple routes bus arrival time data, the weighted average travel time and three Forgetting Factor Functions (FFFs) – F1, F2 and F3 – are introduced. Based on different combinations of input variables, five prediction models are proposed. Three widely used algorithms, i.e. Support Vector Machine (SVM), Artificial Neutral Network (ANN) and Linear Regression (LR), are tested to find the best for arrival time prediction. Bus location data of 11 road segments from Yichun (China), covering 12 bus stops and 16 routes, are collected to evaluate the performance of the proposed approaches. The results show that the newly introduced parameters, the weighted average travel time, can significantly improve the prediction accuracy: the prediction errors reduce by around 20%. The algorithm comparison demonstrates that the SVM and ANN outperform the LR. The FFFs can also affect the performance errors: F1 is more suitable for ANN algorithm, while F3 is better for SVM and LR algorithms. Besides, the virtual road concept in this paper can slightly improve the prediction accuracy and halve the time cost of predicted arrival time calculation.</p> Xuedong Hua Wei Wang Yinhai Wang Min Ren Copyright (c) 2017 Vilnius Gediminas Technical University (VGTU) Press 2017-05-02 2017-05-02 33 2 543–554 543–554 10.3846/16484142.2017.1298055 A methodological framework for measuring the level of convenience of transport ticketing systems http://ojsdemo.com/index.php/ojsb/article/view/167 <p>Public transport sustainability is becoming a major driver for public transport development. Public transport ridership represents one of the key performance indicators of sustainability in the sense of balancing the economic, social and environmental aspects of public transport. There are various methods for improving the attractiveness of public transport for passengers by reducing resistances, which discourage potential and existing passengers to use public transport. Transport ticketing is one of the methods. This article presents a methodological framework for evaluating transport ticketing technologies with the use of a transport ticketing convenience model developed by the authors as well as some survey results through the application of the developed framework on traditional smart ticketing and contactless payment card ticketing technologies. First, a methodological framework for modelling ticketing convenience based on end-to-end passenger experience is presented. Second, a ticketing convenience model for barrier-free and double-sided validation baseline ticketing systems is developed. Third, the ticketing system based on contactless bank payment cards is compared with traditional smart ticketing systems in terms of convenience. It is shown that a contactless payment cards ticketing system has greater convenience or a better, more seamless travel experience than traditional smart systems. Finally, some research perspectives on enhancing the ticketing convenience model by using mobile smartphones with NFC, BLE and GPS technology, as well as the inclusion of technologies related to ticketing such as passenger information systems into the model, are contemplated.</p> Dušan Zalar Rasa Ušpalytė-Vitkūnienė Danijel Rebolj Marjan Lep Copyright (c) 2017 Vilnius Gediminas Technical University (VGTU) Press 2017-05-03 2017-05-03 33 2 555 566 10.3846/16484142.2017.1300783 Accelerating construction of roadway bridges using alternative techniques and procurement methods http://ojsdemo.com/index.php/ojsb/article/view/160 <p>Approximately a quarter of the bridges in the United States are classified as either functionally obsolete or structurally deficient by the United States Department of Transportation (USDOT). As such, transportation agencies are challenged to handle the increasing need of upgrades with limited resources. Accelerated Bridge Construction (ABC) can reduce the construction duration and can decrease the environmental and socio-economic impacts of repair and upgrade activities by minimizing traffic disruptions. As several states are using accelerated construction techniques, a standard guideline would be highly beneficial for these agencies in developing or improving the ABC decision-making process. As problems are often project specific, a decision tool can assist in determining the viability of ABC over traditional construction methods and in selecting appropriate construction and contracting strategies on a case-by-case basis. This paper presents findings of a recent survey with regards to utilization of ABC strategies by state Departments of Transportation (DOTs), and a decision support framework which consists of three models: (1) Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) based ABC vs. traditional construction decision-making model; (2) ABC alternatives selection model; and (3) procurement method and contract selection model. The paper also discusses the use of ABC in New York State and describes a New York State bridge project to validate the AHP model.</p> Ossama Salem Baris Salman Sudipta Ghorai Copyright (c) 2017 Vilnius Gediminas Technical University (VGTU) Press 2017-05-02 2017-05-02 33 2 567 579 10.3846/16484142.2017.1300942 Influence of dynamic non-equilibrium processes on strength and plasticity of materials of transportation systems http://ojsdemo.com/index.php/ojsb/article/view/159 <p>New experimental results on the effect of additional force impulse loading on the variation of the initial structure of the aircraft material (alloys D16, 2024-T3, VT22) at various stages of deformation are presented and a significant enhancement of its initial plasticity is achieved. Complex investigations into the material properties after a dynamic non-equilibrium process made it possible to describe the main regularities in the nature of deformation and fracture of materials, which allowed proposing general recommendations on using the revealed physical and mechanical regularities in the evaluation of strength of aircraft structures.</p> Mykola Chausov Andriy Pylypenko Valentyn Berezin Kateryna Volyanska Pavlo Maruschak Volodymyr Hutsaylyuk Lyudmila Markashova Stanislav Nedoseka Abdellah Menou Copyright (c) 2017 Vilnius Gediminas Technical University (VGTU) Press 2017-05-10 2017-05-10 33 2 580 590 10.3846/16484142.2017.1301549 Review of equipment of flight analysis and development of interactive aeronautical chart using Google Earth’s software http://ojsdemo.com/index.php/ojsb/article/view/157 <p>While carrying out pilot-student flight analysis, it was observed that there is a scarcity of means designed to allow fast and convenient analysis and evaluation of pilot-student flights in airspace. Most of the free navigation tools available are more adapted for on-ground navigation analysis (height and vertical speed information are not always displayed). Various software programmes can display different flight information; however, it is difficult to relate the different data parameters and compare them. Thus, the aim of the study is to resolve these problems by offering to pilots-instructors a convenient interactive aeronautical chart.</p> Tadas Masiulionis Jonas Stankūnas Copyright (c) 2017 Vilnius Gediminas Technical University (VGTU) Press 2017-05-02 2017-05-02 33 2 591 599 10.3846/16484142.2017.1312521 Sensitivity of street network capacity under the rain impact: case study of Belgrade http://ojsdemo.com/index.php/ojsb/article/view/171 <p>It is generally know that adverse weather conditions cause changes in urban transportation system. Research of weather impact on the urban transportation system was additionally intensified by actualisation of climate changes problem. In urban area, precipitation may reduce the efficiency of transportation systems, since it often results in larger travel times and higher congestion levels in street networks. Therefore, it is important to examine the impact of precipitation on the urban street capacity. In accordance with climate characteristics of research area, the focus of this paper was on the rain impact. Impact of rain was analysed only in the context of transport supply, and not of transport demand. Sensitivity of the street network capacity was chosen to represent transportation system supply. It was analysed through the changes in saturation flow rate under the rain. Results of the research have shown significant sensitivity of street network capacity on the rain impact. Moreover, the rain impact was quantified by the capacity sensitivity coefficients, which were implemented in procedure of capacity calculation.</p> Ivan Ivanović Jadranka Jović Copyright (c) 2017 Vilnius Gediminas Technical University (VGTU) Press 2017-04-12 2017-04-12 33 2 470 477 10.3846/16484142.2017.1283532